what causes kidney stones:kidney stones are form inside the body, but unfortunately they are extremely painful to remove.The biggest kidney stone found on record weighed more than a kg and 17cm in diameter. Kidney stone is a form is a hard mass of crystal’s that can form in the kidneys,ureters,bladder and urethra.
Kidney stone is formed when our urine contains more crystals forming substances like calcium oxalate,uric acid which come together to form Crystal’s and in absense of inhibitors in our urine,these Crystal’s bind together to form stones.
You must be thinking that is there a single cause of kidney stone? Maybe or maybe not ,most of time kidney stone causes due to multiple factors.However if we want to know the reasons behind this formation,we have to know the different types of kidney stones.
- Calcium stones : These are the most common kidney stones,usually found in the form of calcium oxalate and oxalate is formed daily by our liver or absorbed from our diet.Certain vegetables and fruits as well as chocolate and nuts have high oxalate content.If a person is taking a night doses of vitamin D,having intestinal bypass surgery and many metabolic disorders then it can increase the concentration of calcium and oxalate in urine.it is also understood that the calcium stones are also found in the form of calcium phosphate.This kind of stones are more common in metabolic conditions such as renal tubular acidosis.It is also associated with certain medications used to treat migraines or seizures.(what causes kidney stones)
- struvita stones : These kind of stones form in response to urinary tract infection.These stones can grow rapidly and become quite large sometimes they show few symptoms or little warnings.
- Uric Acid Stones : Loosing too much fluid because of chronic diarrhea or malabsorption.People who are on high protein diet and those with diabetes or metabolic syndrome can cause uric acid stones.Certain genetic factors may also increase the risk of uric acid stones.
- Cystine Stones : People with a hereditary disorder known as cystinuria that causes the kidneys to excrete too much amino acid leading to cystine stones.Hereditary:y-linked inheritance is like from affected and unaffected father can give birth to affected Male child and unaffected female child continues alternatively.
What causes kidney stones?
Kidney stones have various factors to cause not like a disease for example chicken pox,which is caused by single virus and can be treated easily,but there are numerous factor which can lead to kidney stone formation.
Some of these are genetic eg. Inactivating mutation in the gene for the calcium sensing receptor( CaSR).This can lead to increase excretion of calcium and kidney stone formation.(what causes kidney stones)
To understand better,let’s take the analogy of bottle of water to which common salt is being added continuously.If the concentration of salt is low,it will be in dissolved state.Once the concentration of salt exceeds a limit called super saturation,it will get crystallized.The same thing can happen at a lower concentration if there are any promoters of crystallization.So if the inner surface of bottle is rough(to damaged the inner line of kidney),these Crystal’s can get adhered to it.Finally,if the bottle is continuously shaken (similar to regular aerobic exercise),the crystals do not settle at the bottom.
Applying the same analogy to kidneys, when the urine is concentrated due to higher amount of salt excretion( calcium, oxalate, uric acid,photography and sodium) or lower amount of water excretion (less fluid intake) these salts can participated and form stones.The most common stone composition is calcium oxalate.Uric acid is the second most common component to form stone.(what causes kidney stones)
There are certain factors which increases your risk of kidney stones:
- Dehydration: If you are not drinking enough water and people living in warm and dry climates who sweat a lot can have high chances of kidney stones.
- Certain diets: Sodium (Salt),Sugar and high protein can increase the risk of some kidney stones.
- Family or personal history: If any of our family member has/has a history,we are more likely to develop kidney stones.If we developed kidney stones before,chances of developing in the future,increases.
- Obesity: Increases the risk of kidney stones.Workout!
- Surgery and digestive diseases:Gastric bypass surgery,inflammatory bowel disease or chronic diarrhea can affect the absorption process of calcium and water and leading to kidney stones.
- Intake of certain supplements and medications:Taking a supplements like vitamin C,dietary supplements, lexatives( when used excessively),calcium based antacids can cause kidney stones.